Placing text in the margins
Users often ask how they can place headings, notes, or other
text in the page margins. There are at least three ways to do this, depending on
how much text is involved and its placement relative to the rest of the
The simplest situation is one in which a heading or other
text begins in the left margin and continues in the document body. This type of
formatting was common in Microsoft’s own documentation for earlier versions of
Word (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. An
This type of formatting is easily achieved by giving the
heading style a negative left indent (see Figure 2). Be sure you have allowed a
large enough left margin to accommodate this “outdent.” In this example, with a
1.25″ negative indent, the default left margin of 1.25″ would obviously be
Format Paragraph dialog showing negative indent
If the requirement is actually for parallel columns of text,
even if one column will have significantly more than the other, a two-column
borderless table is usually the best solution. This keeps all the text inside
the document body but allows text in one column to be kept in synch with text in
the other column by starting a new row. This sort of layout can be used for
meeting minutes, parallel translations, and the like (see Figure 3).
Parallel columns of text
Sometimes, though, what you want is a heading or other small
amount of text (or even a graphic) that is truly and entirely in the margin. You
may even want it to alternate sides of the page if you’re duplexing. For this
requirement, you need a frame. (Microsoft documentation illustrates this usage
as well; see Figure 4.)
Figure 4. Framed
text in the margin
Although framed text can be a bit fiddly to set up, in the
long run it is not difficult to deal with because a frame can be part of a style
definition. Once you have the frame set up the way you want it, inserting the
properly formatted frame is as easy as applying a style. Here’s how to do it:
Start with a style
You will need a specific style for your marginal text.
If you’re going to use the style for headings, go ahead and use one of
Word’s built-in heading styles. Otherwise, you may want to create a new
style. For the purposes of this tutorial, we will define a new style called
using a built-in style, apply it (from the Style dropdown list or the
Styles and Formatting task pane).
creating a new style in Word 2000 or earlier, select Style from the
Format menu, then click New…. In Word 2002 or 2003, click
New Style in the Styles and Formatting task pane. Either of these
procedures opens the New Style dialog (see Figure 5). (In Word 2007/2010,
the Create New Style from Formatting dialog looks different but works
the same. Open it by clicking the New Style button in the Style
window, which is accessed via the dialog launcher arrow at the bottom right
corner of the Styles group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.)
Figure 5. The New Style dialog
In the New Style dialog,
type a name for your style and use the dialog controls and the Format menu
(see Figure 6) to define the font and paragraph formatting. You don’t have
to get it perfect right now; you can always fine-tune it later.
Figure 6. Formatting options for a new style
If you’ve used Format |
Style, then when you click on OK to close the New Style dialog, one of
the buttons in the Style dialog will be Apply. Click on that to apply
your style to a text paragraph. If you’ve used the New Style button
in the Styles and Formatting task pane, clicking OK may not apply
your style; to do so, you will have to select it from the list in the task
Insert and format a frame
Assuming that you’ve already modified the page setup to make
the left or outside margin large enough to accommodate your marginal notes or
headings, the next step is to apply a frame to your new style.
Display the Forms toolbar (View | Toolbars | Forms or
right-click on any toolbar and select Forms from the menu).
Important Note: In Word 2007/2010, getting
to the Forms toolbar is considerably more complicated. First you
must display the Developer tab. To do this, go to Office
Button | Word Options | Popular in Word 2007 or File | Options |
Popular in Word 2010 and check the box for "Show
Developer tab on the Ribbon." Then select the Developer tab. In
the Controls group, on the left side of the separator, the bottom
right button is for Legacy Tools. This button opens a palette
that includes the Legacy Forms tools, which include the Insert
Frame button shown below.
If you will be inserting frames often, you may want
to add this button to the Quick Access Toolbar; you cannot do this
directly from the Forms toolbar (although you can add the entire
"gallery"), but you can do it. Click the arrow at the end of the QAT and
choose More Commands... on the menu. Select the All Commands
category in the Customize dialog and scroll down to Horizontal
Frame (the one that has the same icon shown here for Insert Frame).
Add that to the QAT.
Select a paragraph in your new style and click the Insert Frame
button on the toolbar (see Figure 7).
Figure 7. The Forms toolbar showing the Insert Frame button
You’ll see that the
paragraph is now surrounded by a hashed border (Figure 8).
Figure 8. A framed paragraph
You can, if you like, drag
your framed paragraph into the margin and use the sizing handles to roughly
size it, but eventually you will need to fine-tune the size and position in
the Frame dialog. Right-click on the frame border and choose Format Frame
from the shortcut menu. This opens the Frame dialog (Figure 9).
Figure 9. The Format Frame dialog
You can experiment with the
settings you need for your frame, but here are some suggestions:
Width: Exactly 1″ (wider if you’ve allowed more space in the margin)
Height: Auto (so it can expand to accommodate variable amounts of
Horizontal position: Left or Outside Relative to Page
Distance from text: 0.13″ (or more)
Vertical position: 0″ Relative to Paragraph
Distance from text: 0″
Note that “Relative to Page” is somewhat deceptive;
you might think that “Relative to Margin” would be what you want. In fact,
“Relative to Margin” puts the frame inside the margin, and “Relative to Page”
puts it just outside the margin (how far outside depends on your “Distance from
Remove the border
By default, a frame has a narrow box border, which you
will probably want to remove. Select the frame itself by clicking on the hashed
border (you’ll see six square black sizing handles) and either (a) go to
Format | Borders and Shading and select None or (b) click
the arrow beside the Borders button on the Formatting toolbar and
click on the No Border button in the flyout palette. (In Word 2007/2010,
you can find the No Border button on the border flyout in the
Paragraph group on the Home tab of the Ribbon.)
Update your style
Once you have the frame defined the way you want it, you
need to add it to your style definition. If you’re using Word 2002 or above,
click the down arrow beside your style in the Styles and Formatting task pane
and choose Update to Match Selection. If you’re using an older version,
reselect the style in the Styles list; you will get the dialog shown in Figure
10. Click OK to update the style.
Figure 10. Confirmation of style update
If you were paying attention to the New Style dialog, you
will have noticed that Frame was one of the items on the Format menu. Once you
are familiar with the frame concept, you can easily include the frame in your
initial style definition and skip the steps in the previous three sections.
Use the style to insert marginal text
Whenever you want to insert a marginal note or heading,
simply apply the appropriate style. You can do this before or after typing the
text. Note the following caveats:
If you’re working in Normal view, you will see the framed text, but it
will not appear to be in the margin.
If the text in the frame or the text it accompanies needs to have Space
Before, then both styles will have to have it. For example, if your framed
paragraph is a heading, and you want 18 points Space Before it and its
accompanying paragraph, you must format both styles this way. Obviously, this
formatting will not be appropriate for all body text, so you may want to have a
special style for the body text that follows the heading. Select this style as
the following style for your framed style, then make your regular body text
style the following style for the special body text style. This will permit you
to type your framed heading, press Enter to get a paragraph in the
parallel text style, then press Enter again to get a regular body text
If the framed paragraph appears at the top of a page, any Space Before
will be suppressed—but only for the framed paragraph. Its parallel body text
paragraph (since it is actually the second paragraph on the page) will retain
its Space Before. The only solution is to manually remove the Space Before (or
apply the regular body text style) in final editing. If the framed text is a
heading, you may want to plan on having all such headings start a new page and
format the framed style and the style for its following paragraph accordingly.
A framed marginal note or heading cannot flow from one page to the next. This
will not be an issue with headings, which are usually quite short and often
begin a new page anyway. For marginal notes longer than a line or two, it could
be a problem. If you will have many such, then a two-column table may be a more
satisfactory formatting option.
Why a frame?
You might wonder why you should use a frame rather than a
text box for this purpose. After all, a text box is much easier to insert. You
may never have used a frame before and be quite unfamiliar with the concept; if
you look for Frame on Word’s menus or in Word’s Help, what you’re likely to find
(if anything) is the wrong kind of frame—the sort used for Web pages, which are
quite a different thing. But frames
have several advantages over text boxes:
The chief advantage is that
a frame can be included in a style definition, making inserting a frame a
simple matter of applying a style. Text boxes cannot be inserted this way.
Text boxes, being drawing
objects, cannot be seen in Normal view. This may not be an issue for you,
but many users do still prefer to work in Normal view.
Text in text boxes, being in
the drawing layer, is invisible to Word for many purposes. If you’re using
your marginal paragraphs for headings, this is especially important. A
heading in a text box will not be included in an automatically generated
table of contents, nor can it be cross-referenced. Frames, being in the text
layer, are fully accessible for these purposes.
Note: Although text in text boxes in Word 2007/2010
is visible to Word, this ability is not backward-compatible, so if you
are creating a Word 2007 or 2010 document that needs to be used by users of earlier
versions, you should still prefer frames.
This article copyright © 2004, 2008, 2011 by
Suzanne S. Barnhill.